University of Linz, Austria
Klaus Miesenberger received the M. Sc. in computer science and economics from the University of Linz in 1992 and joined the Institute Integriert Studieren. Since that he manages this R&D and teaching institute which runs a service centre for students with disabilities. In 1998 he received his PhD. In 2000 he was guest professor at the Université Claude Bernard, Lyon II. He gace lectures at different Austrian universities and teacher training academies. In 2001 he got his professorship (habilitation) in Human-Computer Interaction for People with Disabilities. His research and teaching work is related to practical I.T. supported integration of people with disabilities and I.T. for people with disabilities:
He chairs the working group "Computer Science with/for People with Special Needs" of the Austrian Computer Society. This group is responsible for the "International Conference on Computer Helping People with Special Needs (ICCHP)" held 7 times since 1989 each documented in extensive proceedings; member of organisation committee and vice chair of the scientific programme committee. He organised the conference at the University of Linz in 2002. The responsibility of the conference is in his hands from now on and he acts as the organizing and publishing chair.
He is member of the scientific and professional societies IFIP, working group 13.3 (HCI and People with Special Needs), OCG, AAATE and F.E.D.O.R.A.
He teaches at the university of Linz and at the teachers' academy in Linz I.T. and assistive technology.
He is member of the board of A.L.S. (Arbeitsgemeinschaft zur Lehr- und Lernmittelerstellung für Sehgeschädigte), responsible for access to school books for school children in electronic form, co-operation with authors and publishers and general management.
He is the founder and the chair of the international association "International Computer Camps", organising annual computer training events for young blind and visually handicapped students to train in handling the P.C., to prepare them for university and to empower international and intercultural exchange. More than 1000 blind and visually handicapped students from more than 30 countries took part in these events since 1993.
He is member and at the moment vice-chair of the association Uniability, the organisation of professional counsellors for students with disabilities or chronic diseases at universities in Austria.
He is working since several years as evaluator and reviewer for the European Commission. He co-operates with several public authorities concerning European programmes in Austria.
He acts as the managing director of National Contact Point for EdeAN (European Design for All e-Accessibility Network).
He set up and manages the Regional Competence Centre I.T. for People with disabilities (K.I.-I) for the Regional Government Upper Austria.
This presentation outlines the co-operation between Austrian school book publishers and service providers for people with special needs which aims at making books available in electronic format. In a project the following has been established :
In Austria, the Federal Ministry for Social Affaires and Generations is providing educational materials like schoolbooks and other materials for primary and secondary education. Blind and visually handicapped students - and hopefully soon in the future other print disabled students - can order books in accessible formats.
Publishers, till this project, did not agree on handing over and distributing digital copies of books. The development of alternative formats starts from printed books with scanning, OCR or, when lots of graphics and/or formal structures like math are used, with typing. In this process structure was added to the book, headings were defined and lists and other structural elements were assigned to the text. This was a very time consuming process.
A more efficient alternative would be to use the electronic source documents from the publishers to create an accessible version for students with special needs. A study conducted by the institute Integriert Studieren in 2003 on PDF source documents from the publishers showed that
due to the lack of structural definition. The quality of the P.D.F., depends on the quality of the structural design of the source document. Only if the original document uses a good structure it is transferred to pdf or any other format in the conversion process. The quality of the documents was that bad that most of the time text was not exported in the right order. The study showed that structured document design is not practiced at publishers' or design agencies' site as it simply is not needed at the moment. Instead of using the features to structure the content authors or typesetters just use visual styles.
These results motivated to start a project which addressed the issues listed in the summary. Publishers are interested to take part as a) the new anti discrimination legislation [Behin05] will ask for accessibility of school books and b) they experience general problems in the publishing process when they want to use sources for different publishing purposes (e.g. print, online, CD, audio/mulitmedia). This convergence of interests led to a strong partnership for the project named.
Five publishers take part in the project. Each of them is responsible for designing or redesigning one of their books based on a predefined set of structural elements. This basic structural design defined in the project guarantees that the electronic version of the book can be used for the production of alternative formats. An analysis of the publishing process at publishers' site showed that service providers can only start from the final print ready version as the content, which is approved by public authorities, changes till this point. This final version today is most of the time a P.D.F. generated from a D.T.P. Tool (e.g. Adobe InDesign[Indes05] or QuarkXPress [Quark05]). Due to this, if electronic sources should be usable for services providers, structured design has to be implemented into the D.T.P. work.
To be able to collect the data of the source document and convert it into a XML File, we used the element Set of the TEI-Standard [TEI05], in particular the T.E.I. Lite DTD. The T.E.I's Guidelines for Electronic Text Encoding and Interchange were first published in April 1994. This set of meta data is widely know by publisher and guarantees compatibility or convertibility to other definitions in use like Daisy [Daisy06]. Using T.E.I. keeps the process close to the upcoming X.M.L. database schemes which publishers might use in the future using database structures for processing their documents. The T.E.I. Lite D.T.D. still consists of over 120 Elements for the tagging of books, most of them important for librariens. To simplify the work for all participating parties, a subset of those elements was selected. This subset consists of structural elements which are of general importance for structured document design and automatic content processing. This subset does not ask for special knowledge of accessible versions but can be seen as the basis for structured document design in general. Using this subset guarantees that the sources (or pdfs) can be used as a starting point for the production of accessible versions. In generals this sub-set of the T.E.I. Lite D.T.D. comprises structural meta data elements for:
It also comprises administrative meta data elements (e.g. Edition, Year of Publishing, Author(s), Publisher, ...). The experience in the project showed, that this D.T.D. Subset is sufficient to structure the content of the schoolbooks. Publishers after a short training were able to do the work by themselves. This subset also proved to be in accordance with new publishing systems based on X.M.L. databases.
After the definition of the X.M.L. D.T.D., knowledge was developed how the authoring tools could support efficiently marking up documents in the right way during the layout process. Further on routines for exporting the defined structure and layout data into X.M.L. The two most widely used authoring tools were examined in detail:
InDesign from Adobe Inc. is a desktop publishing application (D.T.P.) which can work with X.M.L. files. It is possible to import X.M.L. into InDesign and then prepare the document for output e.g. printed book. This feature is an important step toward multi-channel and cross-media publishing. Tests with Adobe InDesign C.S. 2 showed that it is possible to tag the text of the layout document. Further investigations are done to efficiently map layout to the structure. InDesign supports the mapping of text-formats to X.M.L-Tags but the structure had to be added afterwards. The mapping feature can be used, if the text is in a proper layout. Otherwise the user has to mark the specific text area (e.g. one chapter) and then to assert the X.M.L. tag to the text.
QuarkXPress is another desktop publishing application (D.T.P.) produced by Quark Inc. With QuarkXPress users can import and export X.M.L. Documents. With Quark Digital Media Server content can be stored in a central database. It then can be used in multiple forms according to the principles of multi-channel publishing.
Quark XTensions software, which are plugins, can automate functions and eliminate repetitive steps with palettes, commands, tools, and menus. Tests with QuarkXPress 6.5 Passport (international Edition) showed that QuarkXPress was not able to import the T.E.I-D.T.D. To tag the text of the book, a new, flat D.T.D. had to be written. With the new D.T.D. the mapping from layout formats to X.M.L. tags was possible. The content then is exported into a X.M.L. file. This is the basic version for the accessibility work.
The post-processing tasks are necessary, because, as mentioned before, the exported files in some cases have no structure and there are also parts of some books that could not be exported (e.g. graphics, made in the authoring systems). The post-processing tasks were:
The result after the completion of the work is a valid X.M.L. version of the book. The next step is to convert the X.M.L. via style sheets into the target format. The style sheets for the conversion are freely available on the internet [Rahtz05]. They allow to convert the X.M.L. file into a HTML file with one/multiple pages and also to convert the X.M.L. file into a P.D.F. file.
Training materials have been developed which are now used in workshops and seminars to transfer the knowledge to as many publishers as well as design agencies as possible.
To make sure that the books are not used outside the designated user group a D.R.M. System was customized. The system consists of a secure-reader-software and a USB dongle, which acts as the key. Every student gets a key and the software. The key has a code, which allows the student to read the book, if the key is plugged into the computer. This system has the advantage, that the user is not bound to one specific computer or peace of hardware. He can read the book for example at school but also in a learning group or at home. How the students get their books and a detailed workflow between publishers and the service providers is described in the next paragraph.
To start the process, a teacher of a student with special needs orders a book in an accessible format. If the schoolbook service provider does already have the book in its stock, it will be provided directly to the student. Otherwise, the service provider asks the publisher for the electronic version of the book. The publisher sends his T.E.I-X.M.L. file to the service Provider. The service Provider produces the accessible version of the book. Printed (Braille/enlarged) copies are sent by standard mail. If an electronic document is ordered, the service provider encodes the files with the D.R.M. system using the data from the U.S.B. dongle of the student. The book is placed on a server, where the student can download the book. When the student has the reader software installed and the dongle plugged in, he can open the book and read it.
To ensure that the process works efficiently, an agreement between publishers and service providers has been worked out. The core articles of the agreement are:
The agreement will be signed by every publisher and service provider. If a service provider needs a book from a publisher he can ask for it under the condition of the framework agreement.
The most important result of the project is the fact that handing over digital copies of print published documents is guaranteed in the future.
The project showed that it is technically feasible to create X.M.L. versions of books by using the print ready version of a document. The experience also showed that the quality of the X.M.L. after just using the functions provided by the authoring tools is not good enough. A lot of work has to be done afterwards by cleaning and revising the X.M.L. document. The persons who are performing this work will have to have some basic X.M.L. skills. It will also be a challenge to convince the publishers to create documents that can be exported into X.M.L. without a lot of additional effort. In some areas at the moment there are only limited possibilities to sources from publishers, especially in areas, where books consist mainly of pictures, graphics and other visual content. Another challenge is the integration of non-text content like mathematical or chemical expressions.
The project made obvious that all publishers pass their layout data to the print office by using P.D.F. An important task in the future will be, to allow authoring systems to create PDF files that are either accessible or allow a conversion back into a useful format.
In any case these are only first, but important steps towards multi channel publishing. More work is needed for a more efficient production of different versions of one source document.
[TEI05] Text Encoding Initative. Homepage
[Quark05] QuarkXPress. Homepage
[Indes05] Adobe InDesign. Homepage
[Rahtz05] Text Encoding Initiative - X.S.L. stylesheets for T.E.I. X.M.L. Homepage
[Behin05] Behindertengleichstellungsgesetz - Regierungsvorlage (government bill), 2005, online available on May 13, 2005
[Daisy06] The Daisy Consortium Hompage, 2006, online available on January 19, 2006